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Places of Worship

Masjid Gedhe of Yogyakarta Sultanate

Masjid Gedhe (grand mosque) of Yogyakarta Sultanate is located at west of Alun-alun Utara (North Square) or in front of the palace yard. This mosque was founded in the reign of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono I in the late of 18th. Its construction in area of approximately 13,000 m2 was conducted after 16 years of the establishment of palace. It is also named Masjid Gedhe Kauman because it was built in an area called Kauman, the center of Islamic religious leaders in the palatial Yogyakarta Sultanate environment.

The founder of Masjid Gedhe is Kiai Pengulu Faqih Ibrahim Dipaningrat who was the Palace religious adviser. Its designer is the palace architect, Tumenggung Wiryokusumo. It is surrounded by high walls. The mosque complex consists the main building with one room as main place for prayer that equipped with a mihrab (place for imam to lead the prayer). On the left side behind mihrab, there is maksura that made of teak wood, shaped square, with higher marble floors, and equipped with a spear. Maksura is a prayer place especially for the Sultan in congregation (praying together).

The porch of Masjid Gedhe has as rectangular form. Nevertheless, on the other side the main floor was made higher than the porch and the porch floor was higher than the courtyard. On the north, east, and south porch there is a small pond for washing the feet of those who want to enter the mosque. Its design used three overlapping roof style with mustoko (crown of mosque). Mustoko with three overlapping concepts have a meaning that the perfection of human life can be achieved through three stages, namely hakikat (truth), shari'ah (syaria), and ma'rifat (deep knowledge).

The grand mosque of Yogyakarta Sultanate has had many renovations. The earthquake happened in 1867, for an example, has resulted in the porch of mosque collapsed. Then the renovations was made to enlarge and made more luxurious than the original porch. In addition, the ground floor of the mosque that once was made of stone has been replaced with special marble imported from Italy. This mosque is one of the oldest mosques in Yogyakarta and it serves as a place of worship, religious ceremonies, Islamic center of proselytization (da’wa), and the enforcement system of religious law in the Ngayogyakarta Sultanate Palace.

Pathok Negoro Mosques and Kagungan Dalem Mosques

 The term Pathok Negoro can be defined as "state boundaries”. It was four mosques built to mark the boundaries of Ngayogyakarta Sultanate's capital, which each mosque placed at four corner directions along with Masjid Gedhe (Grand Mosque) as its center. Its formation was called empat pathok Kiblat Papat Lima Pancer as it has the meaning of its function as a boundary marker of the central region of the Kingdom. Each mosque of Pathok Negoro Mosques is located in the outside of capital region between 5-10 kilometers from the palace. Specifically, they are located in Mlangi (west), Ploso Kuning (north), Dongkelan (south), and Babadan Wonokromo (east). Then added with one other mosque located in Wonokromo (Pleret District, Bantul), and actually the main concept of all those Pathok Negoro Mosques came from this mosque.

Those four mosques of Pathok Negoro Mosques were built in the reign of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono I in 1723-1819. However, the one located in Wonokromo was established in the reign of Sultan Hamengkubuwono IV (1814-1823) even its idea been coined since the days of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono I. According to its level as can be found from history between these mosques, the level of Pathok Negoro Mosques are one level below from Masjid Agung (Grand Mosque) in Kauman. It can be seen from the position of Imam (Kyai Pengulu) of these four mosques who were the members of the judiciary Islamic Sultanate, called Al-Mahkamah Al-Kabirah (Great Court), where imam of Masjid Agung (Kanjeng Kyai Pengulu) was the head of the tribunal. Moreover, the style of architecture and the philosophy of Pathok Negoro Mosques were emulated from Masjid Agung at its center. Apart from being a place of worship, Pathok Negoro Mosques have also used as a center of religious learning, as the judiciary, as the defense, and as well as the venue for ceremonial and religious activities.

The first of Negoro Pathok Mosques is Jami 'An-Nur Mosque in Mlangi which has functions for boundary marker of Sultanate's capital region in the west is located in Gamping District, Sleman regency. It has had many renovations that one of them was made in 1985 in which the building increased to two-storey. This change has been approved by the palace on condition by not changing its original form. On the west, north, and northeast of the mosque there are royal burial grounds of Royal family, such as Pangeran Bei’s grave, Pangeran Sedo Kedaton’s grave, and the burial grounds of Pangeran Prabuningrat’s family.

The northern boundary mosque is called Jami' Sulthoni Plosokuning Mosque in Ngaglik District, Sleman regency. The name of Plosokuning was taken from a Ploso tree that has yellow leaves. The area around the mosque is known by the name Mutihan (the whiteness) means "The residence of white students (Islamic students)". It also has experienced several times of renovations of the building. The cement floor was replaced with red cement, and used the tile in 1976 and added some doors and windows in 1984, the improvements of four main pillars and some other elements of mosque in 2000. Then its renovation was pointed to the porch in 2001, in which the floor of the ablution place replaced with ceramic and elevated from the original form. In the same time, there were also some improvements in the courtyard and tower speakers. As can be seen from the history, in Jami' Sulthoni Plosokuning Mosque at any specific time was held some religious activities which attended by royal family.

The east Pathok Negoro Mosque located in Babadan, Banguntapan, Bantul regency, was the victim of Japanese military ambitions. In 1943, Babadan region was forcibly evacuated as the expansion of Japanese air base. The citizens of Babadan were forced to migrate to a place that then called as Babadan Baru (new Babadan) in Kentungan, Depok, Sleman regency. The role of mosque built since 1774 was not functioning for a long time. In 1964, the reconstruction of mosque in old Babadan conducted and supported by Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX. In addition, the young name of Sultan Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, Dorodjatun, dedicated as mosque’s name, namely Masjid Ad-Darojat. The central porch of this mosque was built in 1988, and in 1992, the main building was demolished and adjusted as the original form. The construction of the main room was completed in 1993, formed as joglo with four main pillars.

Negoro Pathok Mosques in south is Nurul Huda Dongkelan Mosque located in Tirtonirmolo village, Kasihan district, Bantul regency. It was built in 1775 and had a function as a fortress of defense but it was burned by the Netherlands during the Java War or known as Diponegoro war (1825-1830). After the war has ended, the core of this mosque was rebuilt. The next restoration was done in 1901, but at that time, the mosque had not a porch yet. The new porch was built in 1948, and made no many changes from the original form. Since 1950, this mosque has no longer used as a palace defense base and restored its function as a place of worship, deepen religious knowledge, and perform religious activities.

The last mosque of Negoro Pathok Mosques is located in Wonokromo, Pleret, Bantul. From historical research, this mosque was the main concept of all Pathok Negoro Mosques. Kyai Mohammad Fakih was a scholar who gave this idea to Sultan Hamengku Buwono I. Kyai Fakih suggested that the Sultan should inaugurate the people who can lead the good character, and then should be given land fief (exempt from taxes) and in each land must be established a mosque as a marker of  Pathok Negoro (state boundary). Thus, the mosque was built in place of Kyai Fakih lives, in Wonokromo located on the edge of estuary Opak and Oya River. This simple mosque’s name was “Wa Ana Karoma that means "so truly noble”, but later on this name was changed to Taqwa Mosque.  The original form of this mosque stood until 1867 where there was a little change in the roof and walls. The reforming to expand the mosque complex was performed in several times, in 1913, 1958, 1976, 1986, and 2003. During the physical revolution, this mosque served as a forces base defense of Indonesian people against the aggression of Netherlands.

Besides those Pathok Negoro Mosques, there are also some mosques connected with Ngayogyakarta Sultanate governance. The mosques that called Masjid Kagungan Dalem (the mosque belongs to the king) are Nitikan Mosque, Kuncen Mosque, Rejodani Mosque, Tawangsari Mosque, Wotgaleh Mosque, Kepatihan Mosque, Lempuyangan Mosque, Blunyah Mosque, Keris Mosque, Karangkajen Mosque, and some mosques in the area of Ringinsari, Gentan, Demak Ijo, Klegum, Godean, Jumeneng, and others. All the managers of these mosques, including Pathok Negoro Mosques, were appointed as courtiers and obtained salaries from the palace. The locations of these mosques were originally in Mutihan's palace area that was then set free (exempt from taxes). In the area around the mosques there are usually built boarding schools as a center of Islamic religious education.

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Sastra June 12, 2012 09:52

Keistimewaan Yogyakarta adalah unik di NKRI. Sebagai kearifan dan kenegarawan Presiden Sukarno, sebagai penghormatan kepada HB IX & PA VIII atas integritasnya kepada NKRI.Namun demikian keistimewaan itu tidak pula melanggar UUD45, karena keberadaannya dilindungi oleh UUD45. Demokrasi tidak harus ditelan mentah-mentah. Demokrasi model Indonesia adalah musyawarah untuk mencapai mufakat. Artinya demokrasi yang mengedepankan kebaikan bersama, bukan harus berdasarkan suara terbanyak atau kehendak terbanyak. Praktik demokrasi di beberapa tempat berujung pada kekerasan dan tindak anarkis, yang justru bertentangan dengan Pancasila yang mengedepankan gotong royong. Keistimewaan Yogyakarta tidak menciderai demokrasi,contoh di Perancis ada Monaco sebuah kepangeranan, inilah keunikan Perancis. Dan mereka aman-aman saja. Saya bukan orang Yogya, tidak ada sangkut pautnya dengan Kraton Yogya tapi sangat mendukung dengan keistimewaan Yogya dengan HB dan PA yang bertahta sebagai gubernur dan wakil gubernur.

I W. Jimmy Putra March 20, 2013 19:07

Sangat setuju........