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Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate

Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate
Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate

History of the Kingdom/Sultanate

a. Prince Mangkubumi, Founder of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate

The history of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate is inseparable from the figure of Prince Mangkubumi. Born with the name of Raden Mas Sujono, Prince Mangkubumi is the younger brother of Susuhunan Paku Buwono II, the Sunan (king) of Mataram. Prince Mangkubumi began to be highly estimated among Mataram nobility following his success in quelling the rebellion of Raden Mas Said (Prince Sambar Nyowo), the ruler of Sukawati (now Sragen, Central Java Province). The sunan, who was actually used for political interests by VOC (Vereenigde Oost-indische Compagnie) in command of Governor General van Imhof, did not keep his word after promising to give Sukawati to anyone who could exterminate Raden Mas Said. It made Prince Mangkubumi turn to Raden Mas Said and fight Sunan Paku Buwono II, who had allied himself with the VOC.

Prince Mangkubumi, the son of Susuhunan Amangkurat IV (Raden Mas Suryoputro), opposed Sunan Paku Buwono II and later Sunan Paku Buwono III. Prince Mangkubumi incited the battle for 9 years since 1746. He was unquenchable for Paku Buwono II, Paku Buwono II, or even VOC. To settle the problem, Sunan Paku Buwono III in cooperation with VOC offered a parley to Prince Mangkubumi that was made in Giyanti Village. The parley that took place on 13 February 1755 is known to have brought forth Giyanti Treaty.

Giyanti Treaty is signed by three parties, i.e. Sunan Paku Buwono III as a representative of Mataram Sultanate, Nicolaas Hartingh of VOC, and Prince Mangkubumi. Broadly, the treaty determined the reconciliation between Prince Mangkubumi and Mataram Sultanate, the division of Mataram Sultanate territory, and that Prince Mangkubumi’s territory stayed under the authority of Mataram Sultanate and VOC.

b. Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate from Time to Time

Prince Mangkubumi finally had his own territory to govern. It was on the west side of Surakarta Sunanate, about 60 km away, and is now known by the name of the Province of Special Region of Yogyakarta. Based on Giyanti Treaty, the border of the two kingdoms is Opak River on the west of Prambanan Temple. The area on the east of the river belongs to Surakarta Hadiningrat Sunanate while the west side to Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate. Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate territory spanned to 87,050 cacah (a unit of width based on the number of people could live in the area) covering the capital of Old Mataram (Kotagede), Kedu, Bagelen, Banjarnegara, a part of Pajang, a part of Pacitan, Madiun, Grobogan, and Mojokerto.

Having an area in hand, Prince Mangkubumi built a residence in Ambarketawang (now in the territory of Gamping District, Sleman Regency). It is about 5 km west of the current Palace of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate. In the residence, Prince Mangkubumi determined the place for the seat of his government (keraton). He maintained that the seat of government had to be between two rivers, because such a place would be good for agriculture, and be situated on a spot in the imaginary straight line connecting Merapi Mountain and Indian Ocean. Prince Mangkubumi came to choose Patjethokan Village in a banyan forest called Paberingan, because it was in the middle of two rivers, Code on the east and Winongo on the west.

The construction was commenced on the 3rd of Sura month, Wawu Year 1681, or 9 October 1755. On the 13th of Sura, Jimakir 1682, or 7 October 1756, Prince Mangkubumi officially moved from Ambarketawang Residence to Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Royal Palace that we presently see. It was then that Prince Mangkubumi became the first sultan of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate, entitled Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuhun Kanjeng Sultan Hamengku Buwono I Senapati Ing Ngalaga Abdurrahman Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah, and better known with the formal name of Sultan Hamengku Buwono I (Sultan HB I).

Sultan HB I reigned from 1756 to 1792, the year in which he passed away and was replaced by his son who was later entitled Sultan HB II. Sultan HB II, also called Sultan Sepuh (the old sultan), is known as an opponent of Western imperialists, such as Governor General Herman Willem Daendels and Thomas Stamford Raffles. Sultan HB II confronted Daendels, first of all, because Dutch government officials appeared before him holding umbrellas and did not take off their hats. Such behaviors were considered disdaining the tradition of keraton. Later on, a dispute happened between HB II and the King of Surakarta concerning territorial borders, resulting in Sultan HB II being coerced to back down and replaced by Sultan HB III in 1810.

Sultan HB III was known as Sultan Raja (the king sultan). His administration did not last long because his patron, Daendels, was unseated from his post as Governor General of Dutch-Indies. Sultan HB II took advantage of this state of affairs to assume the throne superseding Sultan Raja, who then became a Crown Prince.

The coming of the Brits in 1812 with the appointment of Thomas Stamford Raffles as governor general had a big effect on the position of Sultan HB II. The sultan capitalized Raffles’ lenient governance to restore the rights of a “Javanese King” that had previously been the core of the problems between Sultan HB II and Daendels. But like Daendels, Raffles did not welcome the idea, particularly on matters concerning protocols. Basically Raffles wanted to get the same respects as the Javanese King did whereas Sultan HB II aspired to make the position of a sultan higher than that of a governor general. The disagreement between Sultan HB II and Raffles resulted in the attack on Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Royal Palace as well as capture and expulsion of Sultan HB II to Ambon (Pinang).

After the exclusion of Sultan HB II, Sultan HB III ascended the throne to again become King of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate. In this period, Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate was forced to accept and be under the British authority. As one of the consequences, Sultan HB III was obliged to let go of his power over Kedu, a half of Pacitan, Japan, Jipang, and Grobogan to be handed to the British-Indies Government through Raffles for 1,000-ringgit-per-year compensation.

In 1813, Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate territory was cut by Raffles and the loose area was given to Prince Notokusumo, who was then entitled by the British-Indies Government as Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya Paku Alam I. Paku Alam I governed the piece of land which was then called Pakualaman.

Sultan HB III did not rule for a long time as he passed away in 1814 and was succeeded by Sultan HB IV. The sultan was still very young—according to Raffles he was only 10 years old. Therefore, Prince Notokusumo or Paku Alam I was appointed trustee until Sultan HB IV was old enough to rule. The trusteeship went on from 1814 to 1820.

While on the throne, Sultan HB IV, also known as Sultan Jarot, put into effect a new regulation, namely land rent system for private sector. European influence was apparent in Sultan Jarot’s life. It was evident in the European-style clothes the sultan wore daily. In 1822, Sultan HB IV departed while on vacation, hence, he is also referred to as Sultan Sedo ing Pesiyar (the sultan who passed away on vacation).

Sultan HB IV’s successor was Raden Mas Menol, entitled Sultan HB V. Ascending the throne, he was only 3 years old, and so to handle the government there was formed a trusteeship council whose one of the members was Prince Diponegoro, the son of Sultan HB III. The trusteeship council was in effect up to 1836 when Sultan HB V came to be 16 years old. It was in this period a big war between Prince Diponegoro and the Dutch, known as the Great Java War, broke out, going on from 1825 to 1830.

In war time, Sultan HB V was imprisoned by the Dutch in Vredenburg Fort, situated in front of the then resident’s office (now called Gedung Agung, the Grand Building). When he perished in 1855, the throne was assumed by his brother, Prince Adipati Mangkubumi, who bore the title of Sultan HB VI.

Sultan HB VI was seen as the one who opened a new page for the sultanate’s more harmonic relationship with Surakarta Hadiningrat Sunanate which had deteriorated since the 1755’s Giyanti Treaty. The good bond was marked with the marriage of Sultan HB VI with the niece of Susuhunan Paku Buwono V from a garwa ampeyan (concubine) in 1848.

Sultan HB VI ruled until 1877. He departed and was replaced by the sultanate’s crown prince, Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Hadipati Anom (Adipati Anom) Hamengku Negoro, with the formal name of Sultan HB VII. In his tenure, he set up as many as 17 sugar factories. The number of the sugar factories led Sultan HB VII to receiving high incomes from the Dutch and so was called Sultan Sugih (The Rich Sultan). For every factories he received money amounting to f 200,000 (f = florin, Dutch “rupiah”).

Besides earning large sums of money, Sultan HB VII worked to modernize education. Sultan HB VII founded many schools from elementary to high school in Yogyakarta. He obliged all of his children to go to modern school. He even sent the Crown Prince to Holland to get formal education.

In 1920, the 80 years old Sultan HB VII asked permission from the Dutch to step down. The request was granted and later in 1921 Sultan HB VII enthroned the Crown Prince, who at the time was studying in Holland, to be Sultan HB VIII.

In the times of Sultan HB VIII, much of the money left by Sultan HB VII was used to fund schools owned by Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate. The sultan’s children were required to pursue formal education—many of them even went to Holland. As well as schools, organizations and activities flourished during this period, for instance: Taman Siswa National School (3 July 1922), Katolik Jawi (Javanese Catholic) Political Organization (1923), Kongres Perempoean (Women’s Congress) (1929). Not only on education, Sultan HB VIII also put much attention on health issues. One of his concrete actions is the endowment of ambulance to Panti Rapih Hospital in 1939. It happened that the sultan breathed his last in the same hospital in 1939.

The heir of Sultan HB VIII was Raden Mas (RM) Dorojatun who was later given the formal name of Sultan HB IX. Like his father, RM Dorojatun was enthroned while finishing his education in Holland. Sultan HB IX was crowned on 18 March 1940. Sitting on the throne, Sultan HB IX moved the pepatih office from Kepatihan (now the Governor’s Office) to the Royal Palace of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat. The authority of pepatih (a government official resembles a prime minister, made by the Dutch to become their henchman), which had formerly been single, was divided into seven roles of paniradya (ministers) who were directly responsible to the Sultan HB IX. This was done as anticipation for Dutch-Indies political strategy that was often fostering distrust and enmity between the pepatih and the sultan, like what had happened in the previous times.

The sultan ran the government democratically as shown by the change of the concept of power. Formerly, the adhered concept had been agungbinatara, which maintains that a king is agung binathara bahu dhenda nyakrawati, berbudi bawa leksana ambeg adil paramaarta (great like a god, a law-keeper and ruler of the world, honorable and noble, just to anyone). Sultan HB IX brought about a new notion, that a sultan had to be not gung binathara, but democratic. The sultan upheld the principle of people’s sovereignty, exercising his authority based on the berbudi laksana (honorable and noble) notion.

Sultan HB IX’s advanced view proved evident in his initiative to set up a university using the Royal Palace as the campus. The university was later known as Gadjah Mada University. Education aside, the king also worked to better the lives of the farmers by establishing Yayasan Kredit Tani (Farmer Loan Trust), introducing Virginia tobacco, and building Madukismo Sugar Factory for the sugarcane farmers’ wellbeing.

Sultan HB IX held the highest leadership position of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate until his departure on 3 October 1988. His heir was KGPH Mangkubumi, entitled Sultan HB X. Apart from being a sultan, since 1998 he also occupied the position of Governor of the Special Region of Yogyakarta until today. 

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Comment Form

anja Nopember 04, 2012 00:46

Ada ga cerita sejarah keraton mulai dari babat alas mentaok hingga Perjanjian Giyanti,

prodjocihno January 08, 2013 13:56

Lantas para pemimpin wilayah- wilayah kecil, Salatigo, Klaten, dll dalam pengaruh VOC lambat laun pengaruhnya dihilangkan dan tunduk pada penyerahan kepada pemerintahan VOC(penguasa baru). Termasuk mengubah kultur budaya akan pegangan dan kiblat "pepundennya" dengan cara memecah-belah wilayah pengaruhnya dengan mengakulturasikan kegiatan rakyat pada pertanian/ perkebunan dalam kekuasaan VOC, serta menghapuskan atas hak wilayah/ tanah ulayat (cikal bakal pembuka wilayah) kekuasaan para pemangku praja yang sebelumnya diberikan kewenangan/ diakui di bawah penguasa kerajaan sebelum adanya Perjanjian Giyanti (jejak cikal bakal kebesaran Mataram oleh para leluhur).

bachrudin January 08, 2013 14:46

Bisa diperjelas tentang Perjanjian Giyanti yang berpengaruh terhadap kekuatan militer Keraton Ngayogyokarto?

asto February 01, 2013 18:22

Bisakah dilengkapi juga sejarah bendera Tunggul Wulung dan mahkota Sri Sultan? Konon, (minimal) 2 benda tersebut sebagai bentuk ketundukan keraton Ngayogyokarto kepada khilafah Utsmani.