The Yogyakarta sultanate has had many changes under the leadership of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X. The fluctuation of democratic life in Indonesia made him to find an alternative cultural perspective to organize the administration of Palace. Along with this knowledge of democracy, he pointed out that the King is no longer gung binathara (the reign of King is absolute); the king is a figure who should rule and lead the Palace under democratic system. Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X as a king of java (The Yogyakarta sultanate) had a principle that the sovereignty of people must remain “berbudi bawa leksana” (having good personality and fair). As can be seen this principle has a high understanding of nationality.
Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X has been a King of the Yogyakarta Sultanate Palace and Governor of Special District Yogyakarta (DIY) since 1998. He was born with the name of Bendoro Raden Mas (BRM) Herjuno Darpito. Post-nuptial until appointment as Crown Prince: Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Haryo (KGPH) Mangkubumi and as Heir Apparent Crown Prince: Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya (KGPAA) Hamengku Negara Sudibyo Raja Putra Nalendra Mataram. In addition, he graduated from Public Administration at the Faculty of Law of Gajah Mada University in Yogyakarta.
On March 7 1995, he was officially appointed as the Sultan given the title name "Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuwun Kangjeng Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono Senapati ing Ngalogo Ngabdurrokhman Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah ingkang jumeneng kaping Dasa". This title means that Sultan is legitimate leader in this temporary world, and Sultan is Senopati Ing Ngalogo who has the power to determine the decision between peace or war and lead as supreme commander of forces. All of this, he is also dedicated as Ngabdurrokhman Sayidin Panoto Gomo (generous religious leader) because he is considered as Kalifatullah, the appointments by Allah [swt] on this Earth as a guide for the people.
Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X was active in various organizations, such as Chairman DIY KADINDAII (Business Association), Chairman of DPD Golkar DIY (Golongan Karya Party Yogyakarta), Chairman of the DIY Sports Committee, Chairman and Managing Director of PT Punokawan Construction, President of the PG Madukismo Commissioner. In addition, he was appointed Chairman of the DIY Expert Counsel to the Governor in July 1996.
Through many controversies after the death of Paku Alam VIII in 1998-2003, he appointed as Governor of Yogyakarta Special Region which. At this period of reign, he had not been accompanied by vice governor. Then he was appointed for the second time as Governor of Special District Yogyakarta (DIY) and accompanied by Vice Governor Paku Alam IX, in 2003.
During the reign of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X, the earthquake struck on May 2006 with magnitude 5.9 to 6.2 killed more than 6,000 people, destroyed several buildings and tens of thousand people were injured. However, he faced this natural disaster that happened in his reign calmly. It can be seen then with so many parties assisted to help in the reconstruction of Yogyakarta, both from within and outside of country.
Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X in his 61st birthday anniversary at Palace Exhibition on April 7 2007 affirmed his resolve in no longer serve after his position of authority expires in 2003 to 2008. In this great pisowanan (a visit from ordinary people to honorable people) was attended about 40,000 people, he said that he would begin to work in national area. Still he will contribute his idea and energy to national interests and state. However, the citizen of Yogyakarta seems reluctant losing such a figure that has been embedded in their hearts. He re-occupied the position of Governor of Special District Yogyakarta (DIY), although he had chance making special alteration attached in Special District Yogyakarta (DIY) when he held the position.
Historical contribution from Master of Law
Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X was one of the figures who care about history. He clearly understood the spirit of education of Yogyakarta benchmark in Indonesia. He once said "Writing the history tends to has dramatical events displaying the history of all heroic actors. Thus, history is easy to blend it with tale, in which a character shows he has mystical impressive as Wong agung (great man)”. This was revealed by him at the tetenger (sign) inauguration of Global Attack Historical Rectification (SO) March 1 1949 in Yogyakarta Palace complex, on June 2002.
“The historians or historical figures whose providing information with distorting events will not only ruin his own reputation particularly, but also destroy the nation generally” Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X stated. Because his writings based on his information would give certain nuances to understanding process of national identity.
He was also one of figures in Indonesia who have a critical attitude toward writing history of Indonesia. He believed that the witness of history in rectification of historical truth supposed to get the right momentum, because writing a history is not a small issue. "Historiography should be able to put a vision supported by verification, to put proportionally in to the role of historical actors in terms of historical events," said Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X stated.
With that quality of administration, the citizens of Yogyakarta are not feeling being sustained in different with other citizens felt in other provinces in Indonesia. Though he is no longer young now, his natural view of world fluctuation seems finding his replacement will not easy. Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X is a democratic political leader and sensitive to people's circumstances like his father.