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About the King/Sultan/Indigenous Leader

His Majesty Pakubuwono XII

The King of Surakarta Hadiningrat Sunanate, His Majesty Pakubuwono XII, born with the name Raden Mas Suryaguritna, on Tuesday Legi at 11:00 pm, December 20, 1855 AH or April 14, 1925 AD is His Majesty Pakubuwono XI’s son with the empress, Raden Ayu Kuspariyah, and the 11th son of 12 children of His Majesty Pakubuwono XI.

Since his childhood, Raden Mas Suryaguritna has already interested in traditional dances. His favorite dance is Handogo Dance and Garuda Dance. He also loves archery sport and diligently studied Islamic teachings from Prodjowijoto and Tjandrawijata, two Islamic scholars in Surakarta Hadiningrat Sunanate. Until 1939, the status of Raden Mas Suryaguritna has not become the Crown Prince yet because His Majesty Pakubuwono XI was crowned on July 20, 1939. Since his father entitled His Majesty Pakubuwono XI, Raden Mas Suryaguritna has been using the name of Bendara Kanjeng Pangeran Harya (BKPH) Hangabehi. On the coronation day of His Majesty Sri Pakubuwono XI, Raden Mas Suryaguritna earned an additional title of nobility that is Gusti Raden Mas.

Raden Mas Suryaguritna studied his elementary education school owned by the Dutch East Indies colonial government, which was Europeesche Lagere School (ELS) in Solo for 7 years. At school, Raden Mas Suryaguritna was one of sociable students who did not think of social statues of his colleagues. After graduating from an ELS in 1938, he continued his secondary school at Hogere Burger School (HBS) in Surakarta.

In 1938, Raden Mas Suryaguritna was forced to absent from school about 5 months because he was asked to join his father, who gained the trust of His Majesty Sri Pakubuwono X to represent him for the name of Surakarta Hadiningrat Sunanate to attend the 40th anniversary celebration of Queen Wilhelmina became a Queen of the Kingdom of Netherland . On July 29, 1939, or precisely nine days after his father's coronation as a King of Surakarta Hadiningrat Sunanate, Raden Mas Suryaguritna moved school to the HBS Bandung, West Java. HBS was mid-level secondary school in the Dutch East Indies colonial government. Either ELS or HBS was only for the children of Dutch or European and indigenous nobles using Dutch as its language teaching. HBS was equivalent of two education levels as well, namely Junior High School (SMP) and Senior High School (SMA), which in addition it only took for 5 years only.

Raden Mas Suryaguritna did not get to finish his studies at HBS Bandung since Japanese military forces replaced the Dutch East Indies in 1942. The deteriorating political condition and security in the country made Pakubuwono XI to be worried so he asked for Raden Mas Suryaguritna to get back to Surakarta. As a result, the Prince rushed back to Solo and studied political governance under direct guidance of his father.

The relationship between His Majesty Pakubuwono XI with Raden Mas Suryaguritna was indeed very close compared to His Majesty’s other children. Raden Mas Suryaguritna was often invited by his father to join in a ritual of meditation at certain times. The room position occupied by Raden Mas Suryaguritna that was adjacent to his father made easier for him to be ready at anytime his father needed. Moreover, both rooms were also very close to the meditation hall. Such a ritual of meditation was usually performed late night and after its completion, Raden Mas Suryaguritna was directly responsible to check the lighting of all buildings in Palace. After that, he will still be awake until dawn came. The habit of meditating at the late of night still be awake until morning seems to be mental and inner training of Raden Mas Suryaguritna.

Implicitly, Raden Mas Suryaguritna interpreted his father's attitude toward him as a sign that he himself was being groomed to be his successor as the next King of Surakarta Hadiningrat Sunanate. Raden Mas Suryaguritna’s feeling grew much stronger when on one occasion he was summoned by his father to prepare more seriously. His Majesty Pakubuwono XI estimated the Sunanate will experience heavy periods to the days which will be come, so he would remind them to Raden Mas Suryaguritna for the future.

At first, the succession of leadership in Surakarta Hadiningrat Sunanate was decided by the Duchy Anom, but this tradition began to be abandoned since the beginning of the 19th century. After the reign of His Majesty Sri Pakubuwono X (1893-1939), the Palace institution functioned to educate the Crown Prince was abolished which caused the succession to the throne be a bit complicated as there was no open appointment in public about who will be as the Crown Prince. Therefore, His Majesty Sri Pakubuwono XI began to determine his choice in appointing one of his children who was projected as the heir, who was Raden Mas Suryaguritna.

On May 2, 1945, His Majesty Sri Pakubuwono XI was died. There was an announcement of the next Crown Prince of Surakarta Hadiningrat Sunanate entitled “Pangeran Adipati Aryo Hamengkunegoro Sudibya Rajaputra Narendra Mataram” prior to the remains dispatched to the burial grounds in Imogiri which now included in the district of Bantul, Yogyakarta. Thus, Raden Mas Suryaguritna should get prepared to replace his father as the next King of Surakarta Hadiningrat Sunanate.

The coronation of Raden Mas Suryaguritna as a King of Surakarta Hadiningrat Sunanate was held on June 12, 1945, precisely on Thursday Shaban 2, 1876 in according to the Javanese calendar. Once crowned as the King of Surakarta, Raden Mas Suryaguritna who was in his 20 years old held the title of “Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuhun Paku Buwono Senopati Ing Ngalago Abdurahman Sayidinan Panatagama XI” or abbreviated to “Sri Susuhunan Pakubuwono XII”. Later on, by the people of Surakarta, His Majesty Pakubuwono XII referred to as “Sinuwun Amardika” because the day he crowned was approaching to the independence day of Republic of Indonesia on August 17, 1945.

During the reign of His Majesty Sri Pakubuwono XII which lasted until 2004, there are many achievements inscribed and gained a recognition from many parties, either domestic or abroad. From the government of the Republic of Indonesia as well, His Majesty Sri Pakubuwono XII received the highest awards of  Bintang Jaya Dharma, Bintang Gerilya, Satya Badge of Independence War I , and Satya Badge of Independence War II. In 1995 His Majesty Pakubuwono XII also received an award “Grootkruis in de Orde van Oranje Nassau” by Queen Beatrix, number one person in the Kingdom of Netherland. In addition, on December 2003, inter-faith leader from India who became the citizen of United States, Sri Chinmoy, gave the title to His Majesty Sri Pakubuwono XII as “Father of World Peace or Lifting up the World with a Oneness Heart Award”. On that occasion, Sri Chinmoy also created one special song about His Majesty Pakubuwono XII characteristic, entitled King Sinoehoen: Wisdom Mountain, Fountain Kindness, Love Sky.

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supono April 23, 2012 14:57

Kami salut karena sudah berabad-abad sampai turun temurun Kasunanan Surakarta menjadi tonggak sejarah budaya Indonesia. Sejak tahun 1745-2012, sudah 13 Raja sampai sekarang mulai dari Paku Buwono 2(II) sampai Paku buwono ke-13(XIII)