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System of Government

In the first reign of Serdang under the leadership of Tuanku Umar Johan Alamshah In title of Kejeruan Junjongan (1723−1767), the administration of Serdang Sultanate was in uncertainty state as the conflicts occurred. Only in the second reign, Sultan Ainan Johan Alamshah (1767-1817), Serdang Sultanate began to formulate the concept of administration. One of the most important is the establishment of Big Four (Wazir Sultan), which are:

  1. Little Prince, in power of Tuan River.
  2. Datok Supreme Minister, in power of Araskabu.
  3. Datok Paduka Raja, in power of Batangkuis.
  4. Sri Maharaja, in power of Ramunia.

Sultan Ainan Johan Alamshah strengthen the legitimacy of the Institute of Big four on the phenomena of nature and animals symbolizing the four corners of natural power (west, east, north, south) and all-powerful beast feet and principles of Sejarangan Furnaces (four stone buffer for cooking) which is the principle of family in Malay community of East Sumatra. There are four decisive figures in marriage or other big events.

In the administration of Sultanate, Sultan was helped by Syahbandar  and  Temenggong as the security chief and the commander. The reign of Sultan Ainan Johan Alamshah harmonized between Islamic Sharia law with the Law of Custom. This refers to the proverbial philosophy of “Adat Melayu Bersendikan Hukum Syara’ dan Hukum Syara Bersendikan Kitabullah” (Malay customs based on Sharia law and Sharia Law based on Holy Quran).

In addition, these are the laws governing the customs of Serdang Sultanate, which are:

1. The True Custom

This is adopted in accordance of understanding the law of nature, for example: fire is hot, water is cold, life and death, day and night, men, women, and others.

2. The Customary Custom

This is a result of a consensus agreement of the King and the Great People of the Kingdom.

3. The Accustomed Custom

This is a habit which is then followed continuously and hereditary by society, thus serve as the Customary Law and there are penalties if the law was violated.

4. The Customs

This is a ceremonial which referred from the stipulations on the Palace. Customs are dynamic, changeable according to the King who rules the Palace.

While in the reign of Sultan Thaf Sinar Baharshah (1817-1850), Serdang Sultanate reached its golden time by gaining progress rapidly, especially in the field of trade. At this time, the Traditional Malay based on Islamic laws is upheld. The main thing is Good Characters (cultivation, tact, manners, etc.), because good mind will show the value of civilization of a nation. One of the positive effects of this concept was many people of Batak Hulu converted to Islam religion.

In controlling the general government of Serdang Sultanate, Sultan Thaf Sinar Baharshah was assisted by Great People, such as the Young Prince Sri Diraja Mattakir as the Little King, Tuanku Ali Usman (in title of Commander in Chief of Serdang) in Master River (Klambir village), Tuanku Tunggal (in title of Sri Maharaja) in Durian village, and Datuk Akhirullah in title of Pekerma Raja Tg. Morawa.

The next Sultan of Serdang Sultanate, Sultan Basyaruddin Shariful Alamshah (1819-1880), experienced the periods in which the existence of Serdang Sultanate began disturbed by the arrival of the Dutch colonizers. To oppose the Dutch influence in the East Coast of Sumatra, Serdang Sultanate under the command of Sultan Basyaruddin Shariful Alamshah stood behind the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam which indeed always made the resistance to the hegemony of the colonizer. Under this support, in 1854 the Sultan of Aceh Darussalam Sultanate was pleased to bestow the title to Sultan Basyaruddin Shariful Alamshah as Wazir Sultan of Aceh with the symbol of power, called Mahor Cap Sembilan.

Resembling to his predecessors, Sultan Basyaruddin Shariful Alamshah was also accompanied by the Great People and the Wazir and the conquered kings. However, the prolonged conflict resulted in the frequent turnover of Great People and the Wazir and the conquered kings.

Outside the Imperial Council, there was another government agency which administers areas including Serdang Sultanate's territory. This agency was known as “Lembaga Orang Besar Berlapan” (Great Eight Men) consisting of 8 officers especially appointed by the Sultan of Serdang to lead the regions outside the center of the kingdom

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emi March 29, 2013 08:28

Mohon informasi tentang panglima pada masa kesultanan serdang, apakah ada nama-nama seperti panglima tunggal, panglima samid dan panglima umar (panglima bangsat)?, informasinya sangat dibutuhkan, trmksh, Wss.